The type of nephrotic syndrome that is most common in children is called idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Idiopathic means that a disease occurs with no known cause. The most common type of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is called minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is more common in boys than girls.

With MCNS, the child usually has relapses of the illness, but the disease can usually be managed and prognosis is good. In rare cases, a child may develop kidney failure that requires dialysis.

There is a rare nephrotic syndrome present in the first week of life called “congenital nephrotic syndrome.” Congenital nephrotic syndrome is inherited by an autosomal recessive gene, which means that males and females are equally affected, and the child inherited one copy of the gene from each parent, who is carriers. The chance for carrier parents to have a child with congenital nephrotic syndrome is one in four, or 25 percent, with each pregnancy. The outcome for this type of nephrotic syndrome is extremely poor.

Symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome is actually a set of symptoms, and not a disease, necessarily, in and of itself. The following are the most common symptoms of nephrotic syndrome. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include :

High blood pressure
Swelling in the feet and hands, and around the eyes
Susceptibility to infections
Fatigue and malaise
Decreased appetite
Weight gain and facial swelling
Abdominal swelling or pain
Foamy urine
Fluid accumulation in the body spaces (edema)
Pale fingernail beds
Dull hair
Ears cartilage may feel less firm
Food intolerances or allergies

The symptoms of nephrotic syndrome may resemble other conditions and medical problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.